Cardiology is a medical specialty and a branch of
internal medicine concerned with disorders of the heart. It deals with the
diagnosis and treatment of such conditions as congenital heart defects,
coronary artery disease, electrophysiology, heart failure and valvular heart
disease. Subspecialties of the cardiology field include cardiac
electrophysiology, echocardiography, interventional cardiology and nuclear
The basic functioning of the cardiovascular system
includes the way the heart processes oxygen and nutrients in the blood, which
is called coronary circulation. The circulation system consists of coronary
arteries and coronary veins.
There are a range of disorders of the cardiovascular
system that are treated and studied under the field of cardiology. Among them
are acute coronary syndrome, which encompasses the broad range of myocardial
infarction symptoms. Angina pectoris, coronary heart disease and restenosis are
other common disorders. Broader categories of disorders in the field of
cardiology include cardiac arrest; disorders of the myocardium, or the muscle
of the heart, which include varieties of cardiomyopathy; disorders of the
pericardium, or the outer lining of the heart, which include types of
pericarditis; disorders of the heart valves, including the aortic valve, the
mitral valve, the pulmonary valve and the tricuspid valve; congenital heart
defects, which range from atrial septal defect to ventricular septal defect;
diseases of the blood vessels, or vascular diseases, which includes
aneurysm,varicose veins, vasculitis and diseases of other blood vessels.
Several devices are used in cardiology, including various
types of balloons and defibrillators, a pacemaker, and a stethoscope.
Artificial hearts also are used and studied in the field of cardiology.